Codes and Standards Update
Karen Miller, Program Manager, National Hydrogen Association
The NHA held a Codes and Standards Workshop
on 16-17 July 1998 in the NHA office in Washington, D.C., U.S.A. Sixteen
members and experts attended to discuss ongoing work items and identify
new potential work items.
The status of the existing work groups follows.
NHA Work Group 1: Connectors
A draft standard has been submitted to ISO/TC-197
for consideration as an ISO [International Standards Organization] Work
Item. The committee recommendation on the next steps for this activity is
to continue working with ISO to develop an international standard, and to
concurrently validate and certify manufacturing testing procedures. This
certification process should take one year, once funding is available.
Sherex OPX, the manufacturer of the hydrogen
connectors being used worldwide today in demonstrations, is looking for
a cost-share partnership for the costs of independent certification. No
further action is required of NHA WG1, other than working within the ISO
structure, assuming the item is accepted by the ISO.
NHA Work Group 2: Tanks/Containers
This item has been accepted by ISO and is in
need of experts to serve as delegates to lead this effort. A discussion
of the refueling station of the future brought out a need for smart cylinders
(i.e., the tank must tell a fueling station what it is for proper refueling).
This could reduce safety issues associated with the public using a refueling
station which dispenses hydrogen, natural gas, and gasoline, as well as
differences in fuel pressures. It was agreed that this issue may merit development,
but that it is outside the scope of the existing work group.
Another safety issue relating to tanks which
was discussed is the need to get data on the integrity of the tank degradation.
The thinning needs to be known to assess loss of strength. There are many
nondestructive techniques used to measure tank and cylinder wall thickness.
Issues to be resolved are: who would perform the inspection, how often,
and would it be onboard the vehicle or off line. Again, while these issues
are important, they are outside the scope of this work group. The Society
for Automotive Engineers (SAE) and the American Society for Nondestructive
Testing (ASNT) may be able to have a role in addressing these issues.
NHA Work Group 3: Refueling Stations
This item has also been accepted by ISO and
is in need of experts to work on that effort. The NHA is also still working
with the NFPA [National Fire Protection Association] to enable siting of
hydrogen refueling stations. Building code officials in the U.S. will likely
require NFPA documentation.
Work must continue on other issues related to
siting. According to Dave Conover of the Pacific Northwest National Lab,
reforming of natural gas to hydrogen in building codes makes it a hazardous
hydrogen production facility. This type of zoning problem needs to be addressed.
Coordination with building codes, CNG [compressed natural gas] folks, model
building codes (IBCO, ICC, BOCA), and fire marshals are a must for siting
hydrogen refueling stations on public property.
Other C&S Issues
Other codes and standards issues raised at the
The NFPA has started a multifuel group and is
considering retiring NFPA 52 to include alternative fuels. Working Group
3 in NFPA 52 is now Alternative Fuels. Even within NFPA, NFPA 32, 52, and
SOA will have to coordinate to enable a multifuel service station (for customer
convenience). NFPA 32 now is for liquid fuels; NFPA 52 is for gaseous fuels
The hydrogen community is developing experience
in conjunction with the development of codes and standards. Steve Lelewer
of Bechtel Nevada presented a diagram of a proposed refueling station in
Nevada. It will be sited at DOE North Las Vegas off a natural gas line.
It will use reformation, clean up the gas, and provide excess capacity to
the refueling station. This activity is a 50/50 cost share and, because
it is on government land, it is exempt from state and local building codes.
The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is already working with the local fire marshal,
who is enthusiastic about the effort. The facility is near an access point
of the site, 65 miles from NTS. This will allow use by neighboring hydrogen
fleets in the future.
The NHA has an opportunity, through a DOE funding
request, to validate its draft standards on the Nevada refueling station.
This effort could benefit the refueling station project as well as the hydrogen
community in general. Lessons learned would then be fed into the work groups
which are developing these draft standards, such as ISO/TC-197.
Allan Coutts, chairman of NHA WG3 and a participant
of NFPA Alternative Fuels Vehicles Committee (NFPA 52, 58), discussed the
ongoing issue of hydrogen leak detection. Both detectors and odorants are
proven to work with natural gas. There was a discussion about which is best
for hydrogen. The committee wants to allow the choice where practical; however,
there is concern that an odorant could pollute a fuel cell. In addition,
there is no known case of any odorant working with hydrogen.
Matti Mikor of Ford admitted that the diffusion
rate of hydrogen is faster than any other gas. Ongoing work by Michael Swain
at the University of Miami shows adequate mixing. Bob Zalosh of Worchester
Polytechnic Institute expressed that there are issues about the extent to
which can you obtain adequate mixing of odorant and hydrogen. Scrubbing
of mercaptans would also be an issue.
Hydrogen detectors are commercially available
now, and have been shown to provide a superb level of reliability. The group
considered a standard specifying a minimum level of detection, such as:
The group agreed that the market should decide
the odorants versus sensor issue.
Bob Zalosh discussed ventilation issues for
indoor hydrogen storage and dispensing facilities. The introduction to his
report, Hydrogen Ventilation and Deflagration Venting Analysis for
Indoor Storage and Dispensing Facilities, is excerpted.
The group discussed the results of the NHA membership-wide
poll on new work items the NHA should consider. The candidates under consideration
- One-fifth of lower flammable limit (LFL) manual methods.
- One-quarter of LFL automatic methods.
- For 4% hydrogen, a 1% alarm level would be required.
It was agreed that none would be ruled out at
this juncture. Instead, the workshop participants took action to prepare
a justification page for each proposed work item, with a recommendation
for whether the NHA should lead this work item, participate but have another
agency lead, or not pursue it at this time. These results are being reviewed
by the Codes and Standards Committee, and will be published in the workshop
proceedings, to be available in late Fall.
- C&S for the use of electrolysers and fuel cells at customer sites,
- C&S on self-service of hydrogen vehicles;
- Restrictions on servicing and storing vehicles indoors under existing
- C&S for hydrogen hookup and use for home heating and power generation;
- C&S for safe self-service refueling of vehicles with hydrogen;
- Certification program for hydrogen vehicle fuel systems;
- Development of in-place testing and certification of hydrogen tanks
- C&S for maritime unique applications of hydrogen (identify unique
- C&S for subsonic aircraft; and
- C&S for small-scale transportable fuel cells as battery replacement/portable
©1998. All Rights Reserved. A Publication of
the National Hydrogen Association.
This material may not be reproduced in any form without permission.
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